Category Archives: Music Theory

Why learning music theory is useful for playing guitar

Song sheet music guitar

When learning guitar, you may not think music theory is important. If you want to become a well-rounded musician, this will be useful for you.  

Here are some reasons why you need it when learning the guitar.

Understanding the language of music

By learning music theory, you will understand the language of music. You won't grasp music without some theory behind you. It's useful to understand how the notes relate to each other.

Learning music as a guitar player

You need an understanding of chord and scale construction. And be able to understand the key signature of a song. These are fundamental concepts that you will learn by taking a class in music theory.

If your guitar teacher isn't teaching you this, and it's hindering your progress. Then you should definitely ask. 

Communicate with other musicians

If you learn music theory, you'll have better conversations with other musicians.

Women playing music together at home

You want to be able to explain music to other musicians. By having a solid foundation in music theory, this makes it easier to discuss music. You’ll have the communication skills you need to be a well-rounded musician.

Read sheet music

By being exposed to music theory, you will get the opportunity to read sheet music.

And that's something a lot of guitarists end up not ever learning.  

If you want to play guitar more seriously. Where in situations you might be given standard notation. Then music theory will be helpful for you. 

And as you get a wider range of music. A lot of music isn't written in standard guitar tablature. There is a lot of music out there written in standard notation. If you want to be able to play it, you need some music theory behind you. 

Understand what you are playing

By having a grasp of music theory, you'll understand what you're playing. You'll know the chords, scales, and other elements of the songs you're learning.

This also makes it easier to learn new songs.

repertoire of songs learning guitar for beginners

You will have an understanding of how a song is put together. For example, you'll know the chords in the key of C major, A major, and so on.

You will know what scales go with what chords and how they relate to each other.

You feel more confident with other instruments

If you ever decide to play another instrument, you'll have the basic understanding to help you. Music theory is the same for all instruments as it doesn't change.

girl playing ukulele guitar

You will have to learn to play that new instrument, but the music foundation will be there.

This makes it easy to move back and forth between instruments. You will have the foundation of the universal music language.

Improvisation on Guitar

Say someone asked you to jam in G major. Would you know what to play?

When you have a grasp of music theory, it makes improvisation and jamming easier. You can get together with any musician and start playing.

If they are playing in a certain key, you will know what to play in that key. You won't have to fumble around on your guitar because you know the notes you should be playing in that key.

Fretboard memorisation 

When you grasp music theory you can memorise the fretboard a lot easier. You’ll understand why the note are laid out the way they are on your guitar.

Notes on fretboard guitar music theory beginner

It makes it easier to pick notes out on your guitar and play them. You will have a grasp of the relationships between those notes. The notes on your guitar won't seem so confusing to you once you grasp some theory.


You can get by without learning music theory. And this happens a lot to musicians who learn on their own.

However, by learning these concepts. You will be a more rounded and confident musician. 

With that, you will have the skills necessary to play with other people. You won't be second-guessing yourself when it comes to creating your own music.

One of the best skills you can learn as a guitar player, is theory.

Try to get a basic foundation in these concepts. We've got a cool guide "Understanding music for beginner guitarists". This should help you get started even if you have no previous knowledge on music theory. 

Most guitar teachers will be incorporating it into your lessons. (Or they should)  

If you are based in East London, looking for Guitar Lessons that will help you understand music. Rather than just copying songs from the internet. 

Then get in touch with us and find out how we can help: 

Basics Music Theory for Guitar

ipad goodnotes guitar tab

Before diving into playing the guitar, it is essential to understand the music theory for guitars.

Understanding music theory for guitar

Music theory is like a language for music.

Similar to a language where letters form words and words form sentences, music theory adopts the same principle.

This article will cover the very basics, but for a more thorough run through of beginners guide to music theory. 

Check out this article: 

Okay, let's get back to a few of the basics that we will cover including: 

The musical alphabet

  • Creating a scale on guitar
  • Circle of Fourths
  • Circle of Fifths
  • Triads in music
  • Chords in scales

The musical "alphabet"

A great place to start is the music alphabet which is composed of twelve letters.

The base letters or natural notes are seven and they include; A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Then we have five other notes that are known as sharps and flats. Sharps represent a higher form of the natural note while flat represents a lower form of the natural note.


















These notes are also the basic guitar chords.

The distance between notes

It is also important to define the distance between notes. 

There are two forms of steps, the half step which is the smallest distance between notes.

e.g. from B to C and the whole step which is two half steps apart e.g. from C to D. 

What does this mean on guitar?

Interpreting this to guitar language, every single fret on a guitar is a half-step, so if you play the sixth string of the guitar, at standard tune its E when open.

Pressing on the first fret makes it an F and this is half step movement form E, moving on to the second fret raises the pitch by another half a step making it an F sharp and so on.

Creating a scale on guitar

Having understood the music notes, we can select several notes in an orderly manner and come up with what is known as the major scale, which is a set of notes that are commonly used in music.

The major scale is set up in such a way that if you start with a particular note, you will end up on the same note.

The formula for this is given by WWHWWWH where W represents the whole step and H represents half step.

A clear example will be starting from G going through A B C D E F# about the formula then back to G again.

 The standard major scale only accommodates seven notes at a go.

The circles of fourths

Another thing to take note of is the circles of the fourths.

It's known as the circle of forth because the guitar is tuned in fourths.

The circle of forth is a simple tool that organises all scales in a neat graph that can be easily interpreted.

The circular graph starts with a C note at the 12 O'clock position and moves anticlockwise.

With this movement to figure out the next position on the circle, we move to the fourth note of our C scale which was F.

The next note would be the 4th note in the F scale, which is Bb.  

You keep going with this pattern, and it creates a circle is arranged in such a way as you move down you generate more flat notes, making the next letters be Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, and Gb. 

When you come up with the other side of the circle you encounter natural notes B, E, A, D, and G.

Circle of fourths music theory

In scales, flats and sharps do not exist in the same scale. 

So when looking at this circle, remember that: 

The Db is the same as C#, the F# is Gb and the natural B is same as Cb. 

These notes are identical and sound the same when played on a guitar.

That's why writing out the circle of fourths, you end up just with flats instead of a mixture of sharps and flats.  

When you take the circle of fourths and move in anti-clockwise direction it becomes the circle of fifths where you will encounter sharps instead of flats.

Circle of Fifths

With the circle of fifths, the next note is of the C scale will be the fifth note which is G. And if you keep going, we will end up writing up writing some sharp notes instead of all flats. 

Music theory seems confusing?

These show how music theory can be an abstract language to learn but the more you understand it, and is able to apply it, the easier it is to understanding playing guitar and music. 

In our acoustic and electric guitar lessons, we would be able to apply these concepts into music. So you aren't just trying to understand these concepts, but actually know what this means for you. 

Understanding basic triads

The other important subject to learn in music theory basics for guitars is basic triads.

 The word triad is another name for a three-note basic code.

So basically it's just taking the major notes and cramming them together in different combinations to get a different type of chords.

The three basic triads found in the major scale include; the major chord, the minor chord, and the diminished chord.

Creating an emotional effect on your listener

These chords have different emotional effects on a listener, for example, major chords in a song create a happy or triumphant scene, and the minor chords create a sad and somber scene and diminished chords which are used to create tension. 

In our guitar lessons, we can help you understand more about how to use triads all over your guitar, in playing, and songwriting to create more expressive music. 

Chords in your scale

Finally, another important subject to take note of in music theory basics for guitar is the chord scale. Chord scale basically allows you to take a scale in a particular key and figure out what chords you can play on that scale and will sound good together.

The process is simple, we start by building a triad which is a group of notes, we then compare these group of notes to get to their own major scales, and by comparing it to its key, we determine what type of chord it is whether major chord, minor chord or diminished chord.

Building a chord scale helps a guitar player discover which set of chords sound good together and makes it easy for a guitarist to come up with interesting music.

To see a better illustration of this, go to our beginners music theory guide. We even have downloadable content so you can have references sheets that help you learn to use these in your own guitar learning as a beginner: 

Understanding Music For Beginner Guitarists

Learning music as a guitar player

Understanding Music For Beginner Guitarists

Understanding music for beginner guitarists

This guide is NOT full of jargon and fancy terms for music.

This is designed for you if you are learning guitar for the first time and would like help on understanding music and the terms associated.

And you would like help and clarity on what it all means.

Getting notes and chords confused? We’ve got you covered.

I hope as you go through this that you will pick up your guitar to go through the exercises to help you pick it all up even faster.

Note: With this guide, you are also going to get our amazing quick reference music theory terms guide. Read to the end of references of these.

Learning music as a guitar player
Learning about notes on guitar fretboard and strings
Learning about melody with guitar
Ch. 4. Learning about scales
Ch.5. Learning chords on guitar
Ch. 6. Major and minor chords. png
Musical keys on guitar music theory
Rhythm on guitar
Bonus Tips Guitar music theory

Chapter 1 

Why Understand Music?

1. Why understanding Music is important for guitarists
What is music? 

Music is anything that’s combined together to create it’s own artform, and a great way for you express yourself.

This guide is going to help to understand some of the ingredients that’s used to create music.

Is this related to Music Thoery

You may have heard of the term “Music Theory”, that’s just terms that people have invented to explain music and the general principles and guides in music.

1. Pizza making with music
Why is it useful to understand music?

It’s kind of like when you go to make a pizza. If you don’t know what the ingredients are to make a pizza, and you don’t have the recipe. It becomes hard to do it from scratch. You would be stabbing in the dark.

Now if someone gave you the base, and a few options for the toppings and how to cook it. Then you can start creating your own pizza.

If you understand the actual ingredients, then you can create more than just pizza, but calzones, and even doughnuts with the same ingredients!

1. how will this help me music
How is it going to help me? 

With music, once you understand the foundations and what you can do with it. You can do way more things with music than before.

1) Be able to be original, and not a copy cat when it comes to playing music. 

2) Create your own original music 

3) Be able to use your instruments fully rather than just "paint by numbers"

4. Be able to express yourself 

5) Feel like a musician and be able to be creative

6) Being able to play and communicate with other musicians

Can’t I just download chords and tab and play them without understand what’s going on? 

And of course you can do that. This is what happens for 90% of musicians.

You can play a lot of very popular songs and sound great without understanding what’s really going on.

But as you improve on guitar or any other instrument, you may find yourself trapped.

When you lack knowledge in some key areas, it makes it difficult to put your own stamp on the music you play.

With many students when we first meet them, are both frustrated and bored of copying and repeating the same things. Without being able to expand on anything.

If you ever want to play with other people too. It’s a great idea to have understanding of music, because it becomes a musical language you can use to communicate with other musicians.

Often students come to us with confusion about certain terms or are missing understanding on things that make it much more difficult to understand more complex music theory too. So we are going to go through some main foundations of  music that will help you.

The components of music are all linked together.
Components of music terms and music theory for guitar

They all work together interlinked with each other, so let’s start with the most simple component – Notes.

Chapter 2 


2. Notes on Guitar

You may hear a lot of people confuse learning “notes” with learning ”chords” on the guitar.

A note is a singular pitch.

If you sing out loud one pitch and don’t change it. That’s a “note” that you are singing.

On the guitar, if you pick one string only for on one fret, you will be playing one note.

So how many notes are there?

There are almost infinite notes because notes are refined by the pitch of a sound. In musical terms, we like to name them using letters. A to G to help us identify them.

Notes On A Fretboard Of The Guitar

Between A-G, there are notes in between the letters as well.

Here are all the notes in order and what you can call them. Don’t worry about the notes in between yet.

1. Fretboard on Guitar notes

Sorry if it's a little small on mobile, but the note order is: 

  F | F#/G♭| G | G#/A♭| A | A#/B♭

 | B | C | C#/D♭| D | D#/E♭| E | F

The reason why I’ve started on F is because for your first and sixth string on the guitar. When you press your finger down on the first fret, that’s F.

Try counting up the frets to find the notes:

F, G, A, B, C, D, E 

on the first and sixth string on the guitar*.

*The first and sixth string is the top and bottom string on your guitar.

Notes With No Strings Pressed Down on Guitar

If you play the string “open”, with no fingers on any frets. Then you get a “E” note.

This is what you use to tune your guitar with a tuner.

2. guitar fretboard strings

Can you work out what the other notes are on the other frets of strings 2, 3, 4, 5 given the names of each strings? *

Download our full guide for a copy of an empty  fretboard diagram and one with the answer.

Tip: Use the same order of letters and gaps in between from previous page and repeat for the other string but start on the name of the string.

Reading Notes in Music

When you read guitar music, you will either be reading tablature or score.

This is how each note is shown in both occasion:

2. Notes on guitar and strings

For score, the notes are shown on each line, which tells you what notes are but not where to play them.

With tab, the fret number and lines help tell you which specific note to play.

Finding Notes in Music on Your Fretboard

If you see a A note on score or in passing. It can be played in multiple different places on the guitar's fretboard.

Try finding all the As on the guitar and playing them!

fretboard note A on guitar

This is why guitarists use tab for music most of the time because it’s easy for them to understand where exactly they have to play each note on the guitar.

 fretboard note A on guitar

Octaves and Notes

When you tried playing all the different A notes, can you tell some are higher than others?

When you get a higher or lower A to each other. That’s called an Octave.

2b. guitar notes A on score

On guitar, even the same pitch A note gives a slightly different sounding A note tonally.

Try playing your different A notes again on the guitar, and this time try to listen to the difference between each A note and see which are an octave away from each other.

Will you tell me what ♭♮♯ mean?

♭♮♯are called "accidentals" on score music.

♯ is pronounced “Sharp” and it means one note higher than before.

♭is pronounced “flat” and it means one note lower than before.

♮means “Neutral” and the note goes back to what it was before.

G♯ = A ♭ which is the fret in between G and A.

You will notice that some notes don’t have a fret in between them:

Between     B and C       and also      E and F.

If you ever see B♯, it just means C.

And if you see F♭, it means……?

1. Fretboard on Guitar notes

What about semi-tones, tones, intervals,
note functions?

These are all different ways of measuring the distance between two notes. And Note function is more special because it’s used to measure specific relation.

2c. Fretboard frets and notes and tones

What do we do with these Notes now?

Notes is used for nearly everything in music. They are like the letters used in languages. Used in phrases, sentences, paragraphs.

But a lot easier because there’s only 13 notes instead of 26 letters! It’s just a new language that we are learning.

Using these 13 notes, we can create music with it.

Knowing your notes on the fretboard is going to make the whole process of learning to play guitar a lot easier.

Chapter 3 


understanding music theory melody on guitar for beginners

Melody ties nicely into notes because:

A melody is a sequence of notes that is pleasing to the ear.

If you sing out loud going from one note to another, creates a melody.

On the guitar, if you play a sequence of notes that sound pleasing to the ear, you’ve just played a melody.

What makes a great melody?

This is really down to the listener, as your ear develops, you may appreciate different melodies than you do now. While there are principles that can work as guides, there are always exceptions for melodies.

3a. image on music notes

Can I play any notes to create a melody?

Technically, yes you can. But it may not sound very appealing.

There are specific notes you can use to help.

Certain notes following each other make melodies sound more attractive and create a sense of entity.

Rhythm is also very important when it comes to creating melodies.

When you first start playing guitar, the main focus is chords and melodies are often either provided separately by a singer or a lead guitar player.

Playing through fingerpicking songs and some other genres, you will find a melody being played at the same time as the rhythm part, which is pretty cool!

As we go through this article, I’m going to try and explain the fundamentals in as linear order as possible.

Because we are working through paper rather than with your instrument in person. But there will be little references jumping back and forth a little.

Chapter 4 


understanding scales on guitar
What’s a scale?

A scale is a collection of notes

Why are these useful? 

People always want to learn more scales but what do they mean for music?

Besides scales being a good dexterity exercise when you play through. Scales are used as the basis of understanding music.

Understanding how you scales are created, you can then use it to understand the fretboard, how to build chords, where the notes in melodies come from.  So even if you aren’t interested in playing “lead”, it’s still important to understand.


How do scales work on guitar?

We are going to focus on the most common scales here.

A standard scale has 7 notes, and includes one of each letter.

Remember the A, B, C, D, E, F, G?

That’s where we will start from. 

What's in a scale?

C Major Scale

You have the naming note of a scale, which is also called the tonic note. (Some people call this the "root" note)

In this case, the tonic note is C.

The main two types of scales are major and minor.

And the most popular scales have 7 notes in. – Great news is that there are 7 letters available for you to use!

Tonic Note

Major or Minor

Common Scale

7 Notes

Major Scale on Guitar

Building a major scale. All Major scales follow this specific pattern.

On mobile, you might find it easier to see these diagrams on landscape view

Tonic fretboard note intervals music theory

Next thing we do is number the position of each note in relation to the scale.

We like doing this with C Major Scale first, because all the numbers land on the letters without any accidentals.

So the notes in a C Major scale is:


No matter where you play the scale on the guitar, no matter what note you start on, every major scale follows the same pattern of tones and semi tones.

Try doing it yourself, start on any note on the guitar, and see if you can follow the same pattern to play a scale along a single string.

If it’s confusing, go back to C major scale and follow the fretboard diagram to find the right notes.

Fretboard diagram notes on fretboard

Major scales are also known as “happy” scale, because it sounds cheery as you play through it.

Minor Scale on Guitar

A minor scale is built differently because the distances between each note is different.

Numbering the positions, the 3rd, 6th and 7th note is “flattened”.

The notes in a C Minor scale is then:

C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C

Now try playing through the minor scale starting at any note, following this pattern.

You might notice that when you play through a minor scale, it sounds sad.

minor scale fretboard note interval music theory

The other common minor scale you will see is A major scale:


This is because the A minor scale is in an easy positions to play, and uses all the letters without any accidentals too.

Notes on fretboard guitar music theory beginner

Playing through all the scales, you can see why it’s important to know your notes on the neck.

Chapter 5 


5. chord & chord progression on guitar

Nearly all songs have melodies and chords.

What is a chord?

A chord is two or more notes played at the same time.

There are lots of names of different chords, and a lot of different versions of the same chord because you can have same notes on different places on instruments.

What is a chord progression?

Chord Progressions is a series of chords played one after another. They often repeat throughout a song. 

Can I put any notes together to make a chord?

Kind of – but like melodies, it might not sound very good. So let’s start with the basic foundation of chords first and go from there. J

The most popular chord you will come across is chord with 3 notes consisting of the 1st, 3rd and 5th Note.

Using your knowledge of a major scale, we can build some chords!


5th Note of Chord


3rd Note of Chord


Naming Note of Chord

Remember how we named each position of the scale with a number? This comes in really handy now.

Major chord scale fretboard notes construction

To build your first chord, C major. We are going to use the 1st, 3rd and 5th note starting from C: C, E, G.

The most important note is the root note – which is C for this chord. And like scales, the main type of chords are major and minor.

But when I play a C chord, I play through 6 strings? Why is there only 3 notes in a chord?

That’s true, but have you ever worked out what you are playing on the 6 strings?

Go through each string and figure out what the notes you are playing are.

tableture guitar C chord
Playing a c chord on guitar fretboard

What’s the next chord in this scale? If we start from D, and take the 1st note as D, and the 3rd and 5th note in relation to D (which is the 2nd, 4th and 6th note on the scale), we get D, F, A.

D chord based on the C scale as minor chord

Notice how the 3rd note is in a different relationship to the root note: D.

This 3rd note is “flattened”. And it is 3 frets away from the root note.

This creates a “minor” chord. And starting from D,  we have D minor chord.

Comparing Major and Minor Chords

We call the two different relationship between the root note and the 3rd as either “Major 3rd” or a “Minor 3rd”. And this is the main thing that distinguishes between a major chord and minor chord.

Eg. C major chord = C E G

Whereas C Minor chord would have a flattened 3rd, so it becomes:

C, E♭, G.

All 7 chords built on the C Major Scale

all 7 chords based on the C major scale

This is the start of writing chord progressions.

When you know what type of chords are used, major or minor. You can write songs based on those chords.

Using any major scale, the chords always come out in this order:

Chord Number

Type of Chord

In Numerals






















All chords built on the same scale are called diatonic chords.

In music, we like to write to write the chord numbers in Roman Numerals.

Major - Capital Letters

Minor – lowercase letters

The Most Common Chord Progression

Now that you can see where chords come from, just like melodies, you can randomly pick chords to play one after another, they may not sound great at random.

Let’s look at what some of the most common chord progressions are.

I V vi IV

  Sounds like this:

Used by thousands of songwriters, it creates a hopeful, cheery sounding song.

80% of top pop songs only use 4 chords that repeats throughout. Let’s see what popular songs use exactly this chord progression.

Songs that use Chord Progression: I V vi IV




Jessie J

Girls Like You

Maroon 5

When I come around

Green Day

Don’t stop believe



Lady Gaga


Natalie Imbruglia

Happy Ending


Hey Soul Sister


It’s all about you


Letter to Elise

The Cure

Walks Like Rihanna

The Wanted

Under the bridge

Red Hot Chilli Peppers


Avil Lavigne

For more songs, go to downloadable to get the more songs with this common chord progress. 

This means that you technically only need to learn 4 chords and you can play an endless amount of songs!

It’s the melody, the rhythm, timing, instruments that makes each song unique.

Second Most Common Chord Progression:

The other common progression is:


Listen here:

Which uses exactly the same chords, but the feeling it creates is slightly more sad.

This is because of the relationship between each chord changes to create a different feeling.

It’s interesting how the relationship of different notes make a chord sound different. And the relationship between chords make music sound different too.

Perfect, so all I have to do is learn 4 chords?

Fortunately there’s a lot more to playing guitar than learning 4 chords! Otherwise it would be quite boring and you would be done in a week.

In lessons with us, you will understand how to best use these chords to create your own music. And understand why the relationships have an impact on the feeling you get from the song.

On top of that, it’s the execution of these chords, and the confidence in playing them. And the creative flare you provide, that makes the song unique to you and your guitar playing. (Even if you did just play those 4 chords. ) That’s the type of things we can really help you with in person.

Of course, there is so much more you can learn for your guitar playing besides playing 4 chords really well. Which makes learning guitar really fun! And a wonderful journey to embark on.

Chapter 6 

Major & Minor

6. major and minor key and scales guitar
What does major and minor mean? 

Major and Minor is a way of describing happier and sad sounding music components.

The reason why something sounds happy and sad is because of relationships of the notes away from each other.

So far, we’ve explored major and minor chords & scales.

Major happy face

Sounds Happy



Minor sad face

Sounds Sad



Let’s do a little bit of ear training to see if you can recognise if something is major or minor!

What type of scales are there? 

Can you tell by listening to the following scales if they are major or minor? (Does it sound happy or sad?)

Answers at right at the bottom of this guide. So no cheating.

What type of chords are there? 

Can you tell by listening to the following chords if they are major or minor? (Does it sound happy or sad?)

Again, answers are at the bottom if you need to check.

How did you find it? This exercise can be really hard or really easy for you depending on your level of ear training. And it's definitely something you can improve at. 

This "feeling" you get some major and minor chords and scales carry over into the Key of music. 

Let's have a look at this in the next chapter. 

Chapter 7 


music keys on guitar
What’s a key? 

A collection of chords built from a scale.

When people talk about a “key” of a song. This is the naming note of the scales, and chords used in the song.

For example:

A song in the key of C Major:

Has the notes from C Major Scale in it – and these notes can be used for the melody.

And the chords used in the song come from the chords built from those notes. As discussed earlier in the chord progressions.


The Key of C Major

Where C is the tonic note and C Major is tonic chord.

C Major














Notes in a C Major Scale

You can work out what the notes are from starting at C and following the tone and semi tone relationship.

Chords in C Major

Following the pattern for major scale:

Major – Minor – Minor – Major – Major – Minor - Diminished

The Key of C Minor

Where C is the tonic note and C minor is tonic chord.

C Minor













Notes in a C Minor Scale

You can work out what the notes are from starting at C and following the tone and semi tone relationship.

Chords in C Minor

Following the pattern for minor scale:

Minor – Diminished -  Major – Minor – Minor – Major - Major

You can see here how the notes relate to the chords from the previous chapters. And how the key is made up altogether. 

Applying Different Chord Progression
to Different Keys

Thinking about the I V vi IV progression before. We can move the chord progression in different keys:






C Major





D Major





E Major





F Major





G Major





A Major





B Major





If you play a song that has the chord progression: C, G, Am, F,

You know it’s the same relationship as chord progression: D, A, B, G

This is called transposing, when you move all the notes/chords to a different key but keep the same relationships. The feeling you get from the song is the same!

guitar keys learning music theory
Understanding keys and chord progressions:

A lot of guitar players don’t understand about keys and chord progressions because it’s not necessary. On a lot of guitar tab or chord sheets.

The chords are there and it’s not easy to see how they are linked together.

Once you understand, it can open options for you in personalizing songs, writing leads, trying different chords, being creative with your own songs.

If you are with other musicians and they request for you to transpose a song to a different key, you can do that too!

Go to the bonus tips section for a full list of notes and chords in each key.

Chapter 8 


8. rhythm on guitar
What’s Rhythm?

A placement of sounds in time with music.

Rhythmic patterns tends to follow the beats of a song.

Beats is like when you tap your foot along to a song and is liked to the pulse of the song. 

If you had nothing else going on in a song, no melody, no chords. Having interesting rhythm is something you can still express a lot of emotion and have a lot of fun with!

And without rhythm, a note – is a pitch and is not music. Even a chord by itself with no rhythm is just a chord. This is why rhythm is so important.

The two things that create rhythm is the presence of a sound and the absence of one.

These sounds can be created by notes or chords played on your guitar, or even using your guitar as a percussion instrument.

length of note duration music theory rhythm reading

Different duration of notes

And when there are no notes and chords being played. That’s a rest.

musical rests in music theory rhythm reading

Different duration of rests

There’s a complete system for rhythms to make it easy to read for musicians and guitar players. 

This is also why for if your piece of music has lots of different rhythm in, instead of a straight-forward strumming pattern. It’s much easier to read the score music than tab or chord sheet. 

Different Durations of Sounds/Notes & Rests

Through score notation, you can see the duration of each sound/note and also rests last for. These are some of the common notations: 


whole note rhythm
half note rhythm
quarter note rhythm reading music
eighth note rhythm reading music
Sixteeth note rhythm


whole note rest rhythm reading music
half note rest music rhythm reading
quarter note rest rhythm reading
eighth note rest rhythm music reading
sixteeth note rest music rhythm reading

Note Length

Whole Note

Half Note

Quarter Note

Eighth Note

Sixteenth Note

In 4/4 Time

4 beats

2 beats

1 beat

1/2 beat

1/4 beat

How do all the different notes and rest durations relate to each other?

Scroll across to see table on mobile:

Duration of Note


1 x 1

whole note rhythm

2 x 1/2

4 x 1/4

8 x 1/8 

eighth note rhythm

16x 1/6

16th notes rhythm reading

1/8 notes and 1/16 notes are written like this to save space:

eighth note rhythm 2

How do we group these rhythms symbols? 

Bars are what we use to organise beats, notes and rests.

beginner and end of musical bar

90% of popular songs has 4 beats in a bar and each beat is ¼ note: Q

This is called  

The top 4 is the number of beats and the bottom is the duration of each beat.

¼ =  

So 4 x   =  1 bar

Here is 4 bars as an example of how all the durations of beats and rests fits together:

Count of beats in a bar:

4 bars of rhythm reading score music

Each bar adds up to 4 beats.

The third line is the duration length of each symbol. I’ve represented rests in brackets ( ) so you can see clearly. 

mobile 4 bars score rhythm music reading

When you count out loud, you would say:

1, 2, 3, 4,   1, 2, 3, 4,   1, 2, 3, 4,   1, 2, 3, 4

Try counting out 1 louder when you first start 

How does this apply to guitar? 

This might seem scary, and rhythms can get even more complex.

When you first learning the guitar, the most important things you need to focus on is what this means for your strumming patterns.

You may see this type of strumming pattern written out:

strumming pattern rhythm on guitar

The top line shows this to be 4 beats in 1 bar

If we wrote this rhythm out in score, it would be:

strumming rhythm score guitar reading

A muted percussion sound/note is shown with X at the bottom of the symbol.

What does it mean?

The symbols represent whether your hand is strumming up or down, or if it’s a muted strum. If it’s blank, then there is no strumming. 

down strum

= Down Strum

up strum in guitar

= Up Strum

Muted strum on guitar rhythm reading

= Muted Strum

Tip: In most popular guitar music, a chord is held for the whole bar and a 4 chord progression repeats through 4 bars.

A few more rhythm keywords to mention:

A few other things that are related rhythm I will quickly mention includes:


How fast the music is going

Normally you count this as the number of beats per minute.

The most popular songs are often around 80-110 BPM.


How you make the note sound.

The note could be played louder, or softer, so making it sound shorter and pointy or having a note held for longer.

In a 4 bar beat bar as we’ve been going through, the first and third beat are commonly played louder than the other beats.

This all still seems very confusing...

Rhythms can seem very confusing, and it’s one of the things that a lot of guitar players ask us for help with.

Especially when it’s not applied to music that you are working on.

In lessons, we would be able to show you how this all applies to your favourite music, and you understand it and is able to use it.

We will help you not only know all the facts, but actually be able to apply it to music so you can become a great guitar player.

Any questions, contact us on 02031434809 or email at today if you want to ask how we can help you in our lessons.

Oh wait! You’ve still got bonus tips in the chapter below waiting for you!

Chapter 9 

Bonus Tips For You

Bonus music theory understanding for guitar tips

Well done for getting this far!

I tried to make everything as easy to understand as possible. But if there is anything that is confusing or you think could have been explained easier. Drop us an email: so we can help you. J

In this bonus section, you can download the following:

Fretboard Diagram – important for learning your notes

All notes in all keys – useful reference guide for melody writing

All chords in all keys – useful in chord writing and working out keys of songs.

Fuller list of songs built on the idea of the most common chord progression: I V VI vi 

I've also got the answers to Ear Training exercises from earlier.

Hope you’ve enjoyed this article/workbook. It took some time to put together, so if you appreciate it, share it with anyone you know that you think would benefit from it!

Downloadable Content:

This content is too difficult to upload online and will be much easier for you to access to help your musical understanding for your guitar playing as a beginner: 

Click on the link below to download this whole guide which includes your bonus content. 🙂 

If you choose to download the guide, you may get other guitar learning email advice from us in the future. 🙂 To opt out, just unsubscribe from the email you get from us. 

Oh I nearly forgot! 

The answers to your ear training exercise from Chapter 6 - major and minor. 

Scroll down to find them:

downloadable content for beginner musician guitar

What type of scales are there? - Answers 

C Minor

G# Major

F Minor

C Major

C Major

E Minor

G Major

A Minor


What type of chords are there? - Answers 

A Minor

D Minor

G# Major

C Major

D Major

A♭ Minor

G# Minor

G Major

author jennifer guitar tuition east london



at Guitar Tuition East London

Handmade and crafted by me 🙂 

I hope you've enjoyed this guide

“Understanding Music for beginner guitar players.”

Any questions, contact us on 02031434809 or email at today if you want to ask how we can help you in guitar lessons at our school. J

Is It Really Necessary For Me To Learn Scales?

Pentatonic scale position 5

Is It Really Necessary For Me To Learn Scales?

This is one of the most frequently asked questions that intermediate guitar players ask their teacher: “do I really need to learn scales?”

But scales are boring…

After all, scales look very boring, and you may have probably heard from somewhere that learning scales will make you a boring “mechanical” player. Of course you are not enthusiastic to practice them!

The reality, though, is different: scales are one of the best possible things you can learn to make your guitar playing move to the next level. So let me tell you immediately that if your guitar teacher told you to learn and practice your scales, he or she is perfectly right.

What do you have to gain from learning scales?

But what do you have to gain from learning scales? Here are a few points to consider:

First of all, scales are one of the main tools to train your physical technique on the guitar. This is true not only for the guitar, but for all instruments: literally all musicians practice scales (even singers). It’s one of the best ways to understand how your instruments works and sounds. A proper practice routine including scales and other similar items will make you hands more agile, faster, and will give you way more stamina for the more demanding pieces of music.

Ear training

Scales are great for your ear training. By playing them you will naturally learn to recognize their sound – which later will make it easier for you to transcribe songs. And hey, this works even if you don’t know or don’t think about it! You learn just by playing and hearing the sound you make. Isn’t that great?

For Improvisation

Scales are a great template to learn to improvise melodies or leads. In fact some great improvisers base their solos only on scales – and they sound great! Sure, it is not the ONLY possible approach, but it’s one of the most basic ones, and it’s worth learning well.

To see a few tricks on how to learn scales better, I suggest also to watch this video:

As you can see, there is nothing really difficult – and yes, you can make learning scales a fun part of your practice time! As usual make sure to check everything you do with your guitar teacher – he is the ultimate authority on what you should do at any time in your practice.

About The Author

Tommaso Zillio is a professional prog rock musician and a regular writer of columns about Music Theory for Guitar.

Why Some People Can Write Songs And Other Can’t?

learning songwriting guitar lesson

Why Some People Can Write Songs And Other Can’t?

In the world of musicians there seems to be a quite sharp distinction between people who can compose original music and people who can’t.

The general agreement is that the former have some specific quality or talent that the latter do not possess (usually called “creativity” or “inspiration”)
As a consequence, many musicians simply believe that they will never be able to write songs – after all, they tried already and came out short. Maybe you think that this is your case too.

The reality

Well, the reality is quite different. And our outlook much more optimistic than you would expect 😉
Everybody can learn to write songs. Yes, I wrote “LEARN”: writing music is a learned (and teachable!) skill, just like guitar playing, riding a bicycle, or driving a car. It only LOOKS like a “natural ability”, but in fact people who can “naturally” write songs simply picked up a few basic techniques.
This means that even if you have no “creativity” to speak of at the moment, you CAN learn to be a creative musician.
The only “problem”, if you want to call it this way, is that your training should start in a strange place – that is to say, you will NOT start from something that resemble songwriting.
At the same time, this kind of training is very fun, and not hard at all to do. You may have already done something similar (in fact, I’m sure you did, otherwise you would not be here reading this article…)
So what is the right kind of training that will get your started on the way of learning how to write songs and compose original music? Rather than writing pages and pages about it, I prefer to show it to you in a video, so watch this:

Doing the exercise:

See, that was not hard at all. You can do this exercise literally anytime… but do not underestimate it because it looks so simple to do. First of all, depending on how much you can concentrate, this exercise can become quite complex. Secondly, the benefits that come from doing this consistently far surpass what you can imagine right now.
And if you do not believe this exercise will boost your creativity and ability to write… then my only suggestion is: do it once every day for a month. Then decide by yourself if you see any difference. You have my guarantee, you will be surprised.

Do you need to understand more music to get started? As a beginner, it can be quite overwhelming with all the terms. Especially learning on guitar. Use our “Understanding Music for Beginner Guitarists” to help you.

About The Author

A professional prog rock musician, Tommaso Zillio is a regular writer of columns about music composition.